Some studies on animals reported the benzodiazepines relationship with risk for cancers as clonazepam with thyroid cancer, diazepam would cause the risk for breast cancer and oxazepam for liver cancer. Kripke remarked that there is no persuasive evidence for benefits from long term hypnotic's use. Several studies.
Moreover, the other confounding factors could influence to the risk of some cancers such as location (ie, Regions) and socio-economic status (ie, SES—based on the total amounts of payment to Taiwan's National Health Insurance) which were included in this study.
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Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, medazepam, nitrazepam, and oxazepam are safe among BZDs use for cancer risk. Our findings could help physicians to select safer BZDs and provide an evidence on the carcinogenic effect of benzodiazepines use by considering the LOE and DDD for further research.
In addition, we performed further analysis to compare individuals with cancer if they ever took a BZDs before their cancer diagnosis and compared with those who had never taken it (Figure S2 in Appendix http://links.lww.com/MD/A181 ).
Despite the widespread prescribing of benzodiazepines, uncertainty still surrounds the potential for cognitive impairment following their long-term use. Furthermore, the degree of recovery that may take place after withdrawal or the level of residual impairment, if any, that is maintained in long-term benzodiazepine users is.
The findings of this study highlight the problems associated with long-term benzodiazepine therapy and suggest that previous benzodiazepine users would be likely to experience the benefit of improved cognitive functioning after withdrawal. The current paper employed meta-analytic techniques to address two questions: (1) Does the cognitive function of long-term benzodiazepine users improve following withdrawal? (2) Are previous long-term benzodiazepine users still impaired at follow-up compared to controls or normative data? Results of the meta-analyses indicated that long-term benzodiazepine users do show recovery of function in many areas after withdrawal. However, the reviewed data did not support full restitution of function, at least in the first 6 months following cessation and suggest that there may be some permanent deficits or deficits that take longer than 6 months to compley recover. However, there remains a significant impairment in most areas of cognition in comparison to controls or normative data. Furthermore, the degree of recovery that may take place after withdrawal or the level of residual impairment, if any, that is maintained in long-term benzodiazepine users is also unclear. Despite the widespread prescribing of benzodiazepines, uncertainty still surrounds the potential for cognitive impairment following their long-term use.